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Alibudbud R. (2023). Gender in mental health: Relationship of spirituality, social support, and COVID-19-related fear among heterosexual and LGBTQ+ youth. Frontiers in sociology, 7, 1102664.

Andrzejewski, J., Salgin, L., Poteat, V. P., Yoshikawa, H., & Calzo, J. P. (2023). Gender-Sexuality Alliance Advisors' Self-Efficacy to Address Transgender Issues: An Interpersonal Protective Factor for Transgender Student Depression. LGBT health, 10(4), 296-305.

Barnett, M. L., Salem, H., Rosas, Y. G., Feinberg, E., Nunez-Pepen, R., Chu, A., Belmont-Ryu, H., Matsuno, E., & Broder-Fingert, S. (2023). Adapting Community Health Worker Care Models to Advance Mental Health Services Among LGBTQ Youth. Administration and policy in mental health, 50(4), 658-672.

Diana, P., & Esposito, S. (2022). LGBTQ+ Youth Health: An Unmet Need in Pediatrics. Children (Basel, Switzerland), 9(7), 1027.

Evans-Chase, M., Solomon, P., Peralta, B., Kornmann, R., & Fenkel, C. (2023). Treating Depression in Adolescents and Young Adults Using Remote Intensive Outpatient Programs: Quality Improvement Assessment. JMIR formative research, 7, e44756.

Kaczkowski, W., Cooper, A. C., Li, J., & Robin, L. (2022). The Association of LGBTQ-Supportive School Health Policies and Practices with Sexual Health Outcomes. LGBT health, 9(6), 384-392.

Kelley, J., Pullen Sansfaçon, A., Gelly, M. A., Chiniara, L., & Chadi, N. (2022). School Factors Strongly Impact Transgender and Non-Binary Youths' Well-Being. Children (Basel, Switzerland), 9(10), 1520.

McDermott, E., Kaley, A., Kaner, E., Limmer, M., McGovern, R., McNulty, F., Nelson, R., Geijer-Simpson, E., & Spencer, L. (2023). Understanding How School-Based Interventions Can Tackle LGBTQ+ Youth Mental Health Inequality: A Realist Approach. International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(5), 4274.

McGregor, K., McKenna, J. L., Barrera, E. P., Williams, C. R., Hartman-Munick, S. M., & Guss, C. E. (2023). Disordered eating and considerations for the transgender community: a review of the literature and clinical guidance for assessment and treatment. Journal of eating disorders, 11(1), 75.

Scheer, J. R., Edwards, K. M., Sheinfil, A. Z., Dalton, M. R., Firkey, M. K., & Watson, R. J. (2022). Interpersonal Victimization, Substance Use, and Mental Health Among Sexual and Gender Minority Youth: The Role of Self-concept Factors. Journal of interpersonal violence, 37(19-20), NP18104-NP18129.

Soldati, L., Hasler, R., Recordon, N., Clement, M., Köhl, J., & Perroud, N. (2022). Gender Dysphoria and Dissociative Identity Disorder: A Case Report and Review of Literature. Sexual medicine, 10(5), 100553.

Town, R., Hayes, D., Fonagy, P., & Stapley, E. (2022). A qualitative investigation of LGBTQ+ young people's experiences and perceptions of self-managing their mental health. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 31(9), 1441-1454.

Valido, A., Rivas-Koehl, M., Rivas-Koehl, D., Espelage, D. L., Lawrence, T. I., & Robinson, L. E. (2022). Latent Class Analysis of Victimization Patterns and Associated Protective Factors among LGBTQ Youth. International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(16), 9953.

Peer-Reviewed Journal Article References:
American Psychological Association. (2015). Guidelines for psychological practice with transgender and gender nonconforming people. American Psychologist, 70(9), 832–864.

Borgogna, N. C., McDermott, R. C., Aita, S. L., & Kridel, M. M. (2019). Anxiety and depression across gender and sexual minorities: Implications for transgender, gender nonconforming, pansexual, demisexual, asexual, queer, and questioning individuals. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 6(1), 54–63.

Cicero, E. C., Reisner, S. L., Merwin, E. I., Humphreys, J. C., & Silva, S. G. (2020). Application of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System sampling weights to transgender health measurement. Nursing Research, 69(4), 307–315.

Du Bois, S. N., Guy, A. A., Legate, N., & Kendall, A. D. (2021). Examining partnership-health associations among transgender individuals using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 8(4), 458–471.

Eaton, N. R. (2014). Transdiagnostic psychopathology factors and sexual minority mental health: Evidence of disparities and associations with minority stressors. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 1(3), 244–254.

Edwards-Leeper, L., Leibowitz, S., & Sangganjanavanich, V. F. (2016). Affirmative practice with transgender and gender nonconforming youth: Expanding the model. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 3(2), 165–172.

Fantus, S., & Newman, P. A. (2020). Promoting a positive school climate for sexual and gender minority youth through a systems approach: A theory-informed qualitative study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. Advance online publication.

Gilbert, C., Siepser, C., Fink, A. E., & Johnson, N. L. (2021). Why LGBTQ+ campus resource centers are essential. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 8(2), 245–249.

Goldberg, A. E., Smith, J. Z., & Beemyn, G. (2020). Trans activism and advocacy among transgender students in higher education: A mixed methods study. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education, 13(1), 66–84.

Hartung, C. M., & Lefler, E. K. (2019). Sex and gender in psychopathology: DSM–5 and beyond. Psychological Bulletin, 145(4), 390–409.

Hatchel, T., Espelage, D. L., & Huang, Y. (2018). Sexual harassment victimization, school belonging, and depressive symptoms among LGBTQ adolescents: Temporal insights. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 88(4), 422–430.

Heck, N. C., Flentje, A., & Cochran, B. N. (2013). Offsetting risks: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 1(S), 81–90.

Heck, N. C. (2015). The potential to promote resilience: Piloting a minority stress-informed, GSA-based, mental health promotion program for LGBTQ youth. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 2(3), 225–231. 

Heck, N. C., Poteat, V. P., & Goodenow, C. S. (2016). Advances in research with LGBTQ youth in schools. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 3(4), 381–385.

Ho, F., & Mussap, A. J. (2019). The Gender Identity Scale: Adapting the Gender Unicorn to measure gender identity. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 6(2), 217–231.

Ioverno, S., Belser, A. B., Baiocco, R., Grossman, A. H., & Russell, S. T. (2016). The protective role of gay–straight alliances for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and questioning students: A prospective analysis. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 3(4), 397–406.

Kiekens, W. J., la Roi, C., & Dijkstra, J. K. (2021). Sexual identity disparities in mental health among U.K. adults, U.S. adults, and U.S. adolescents: Examining heterogeneity by race/ethnicity. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 8(4), 407–419.

Kornienko, O., Santos, C. E., Martin, C. L., & Granger, K. L. (2016). Peer influence on gender identity development in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 52(10), 1578–1592. 

Levenson, J. S., Craig, S. L., & Austin, A. (2021). Trauma-informed and affirmative mental health practices with LGBTQ+ clients. Psychological Services.

McKay, T. R., & Watson, R. J. (2020). Gender expansive youth disclosure and mental health: Clinical implications of gender identity disclosure. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 7(1), 66–75. 

Mereish, E. H., & Poteat, V. P. (2015). A relational model of sexual minority mental and physical health: The negative effects of shame on relationships, loneliness, and health. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62(3), 425–437.

Moore, K., Camacho, D., & Spencer-Suarez, K. N. (2021). A mixed-methods study of social identities in mental health care among LGBTQ young adults of color. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 91(6), 724–737.

Reeve, J. (2013). How students create motivationally supportive learning environments for themselves: The concept of agentic engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 579–595.

Sattler, F. A., Zeyen, J., & Christiansen, H. (2017). Does sexual identity stress mediate the association between sexual identity and mental health? Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 4(3), 296–303.

Sotardi, V. A., Surtees, N., Vincent, K., & Johnston, H. (2021). Belonging and adjustment for LGBTQ+ and non-LGBTQ+ students during the social transition to university. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education.

Walch, S. E., Ngamake, S. T., Bovornusvakool, W., & Walker, S. V. (2016). Discrimination, internalized homophobia, and concealment in sexual minority physical and mental health. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 3(1), 37–48.

Warlick, C. A., Lawrence, R., & Armstrong, A. (2021). Examining fundamentalism and mental health in a religiously diverse LGBTQ+ sample. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 8(2), 149–160.

Whitton, S. W., Dyar, C., Newcomb, M. E., & Mustanski, B. (2018). Romantic involvement: A protective factor for psychological health in racially-diverse young sexual minorities. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 127(3), 265–275. 

Woodford, M. R., Kulick, A., Garvey, J. C., Sinco, B. R., & Hong, J. S. (2018). LGBTQ policies and resources on campus and the experiences and psychological well-being of sexual minority college students: Advancing research on structural inclusion. Psychology of Sexual Orientation and Gender Diversity, 5(4), 445–456.

Woulfe, J. M., & Goodman, L. A. (2020). Weaponized oppression: Identity abuse and mental health in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer community. Psychology of Violence, 10(1), 100–109.

Additional References:

State of Michigan

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Questions? Email:

- Examples of Policies and Emerging Practices for Supporting Transgender Students. U.S. Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education. Office of Safe and Healthy Students. May 2016.

- Russell, Stephen T.; and Jessica N. Fish. Mental Health in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Youth. National Center for Biotechnology Information, March 2016, p1-3.

- Sidowsky, Michael, More Than a Safe Space How Schools Can Enable LGBTQ Students to Thrive, AMERICAN EDUCATOR | WINTER 2016–2017,

- State of Michigan. State Board of Education Statement and Guidance on Safe and Supportive Learning Environments for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning (LGBTQ) Students. State of Michigan, September 2016, p1-9.

- The New York State Dignity for All Students Act: A Resource and Promising Practices Guide for School Administrators & Faculty.2017.

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