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Section 2
Willful Cruelty or Unjustifiable Punishment of a Child

Question 2 | Test | Table of Contents

State of California
California Department of Social Services

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- State of California and California Department of Social Services. Child Abuse Reporting... and You. State of California; California Department of Social Services; Office of Child Abuse Prevention, December 2006. p. 1 and 6.

Child Sexual Abuse and Neglect

- Melmer, M. N., & Gutovitz, S. (2022). Child Sexual Abuse and Neglect. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing.

Peer-Reviewed Journal Article References:
Assink, M., van der Put, C. E., Meeuwsen, M. W. C. M., de Jong, N. M., Oort, F. J., Stams, G. J. J. M., & Hoeve, M. (2019). Risk factors for child sexual abuse victimization: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 145(5), 459–489.

Augusti, E.-M., Baugerud, G. A., Sulutvedt, U., & Melinder, A. (2018). Maltreatment and trauma symptoms: Does type of maltreatment matter? Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 10(4), 396–401.

Gershoff, E. T., Goodman, G. S., Miller-Perrin, C. L., Holden, G. W., Jackson, Y., & Kazdin, A. E. (2018). The strength of the causal evidence against physical punishment of children and its implications for parents, psychologists, and policymakers. American Psychologist, 73(5), 626–638.

Jaffee, S. R., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., Polo-Tomas, M., Price, T. S., & Taylor, A. (2004). The Limits of Child Effects: Evidence for Genetically Mediated Child Effects on Corporal Punishment but Not on Physical Maltreatment. Developmental Psychology, 40(6), 1047–1058. 

McLeod, G. F. H., Fergusson, D. M., & Horwood, L. J. (2014). Childhood physical punishment or maltreatment and partnership outcomes at age 30. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84(3), 307–315. 

What can become a factor in a child abuse case? To select and enter your answer go to Test.

Section 3
Table of Contents